phonetician n : a specialist in phonetics
Phonetics (from the Greek φωνή (phonê) "sound" or "voice") is the study of the physical sounds of human speech. It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds (phones), and the processes of their physiological production, auditory reception, and neurophysiological perception.
Phonetics was studied as early as 2,500 years ago in ancient India, with account of the place and manner of articulation of consonants in his 5th century BC treatise on Sanskrit. The major Indic alphabets today order their consonants according to classification.
Types of phoneticsPhonetics has three main branches:
- articulatory phonetics is concerned with the articulation of speech: The position, shape, and movement of articulators or speech organs, such as the lips, tongue, and vocal folds.
- acoustic phonetics is concerned with acoustics of speech: The properties of the sound waves, such as their frequency and harmonics.
- auditory phonetics is concerned with speech perception: How sound is received by the inner ear and perceived by the brain.
Phonetics and phonologyIn contrast to phonetics, phonology is the study of language-specific systems and patterns of sound and gesture. While phonology is grounded in phonetics, it is a distinct area of linguistics, dealing with abstract but psychologically-real sound and gesture units (phonemes) and their variants (allophones), the distinctive properties (features) which form the basis of meaningful contrast between these units, and their classification into natural classes based on shared behavior and phonological processes. Phonetics deals with the physical properties of sounds themselves, not how they are meaningful. There are over a hundred phones recognized as basic by the International Phonetic Association (IPA) and transcribed by simple letters in their International Phonetic Alphabet.
Although "meaningful contrast" between phonemes forms the basis of other discussions of meaning, the subject of semantics does not enter into this level of linguistic analysis.
External links and references
- The International Society of Phonetic Sciences (ISPhS)
- A little encyclopedia of phonetics, Peter Roach, Professor of Phonetics, University of Reading, UK. (pdf)
- The sounds and sound patterns of language U Penn
- UCLA lab data
- UCLA Phonetics Lab Archive
- EGG and Voice Quality (electroglottography, phonation, etc.)
- IPA handbook
- IPA-SAM Phonetic Fonts
- Speech Analysis Tutorial
- Lecture materials in German on phonetics & phonology, university of Erfurt
- Real-time MRI video of the articulation of speech sounds, from the USC Speech Articulation and kNowledge (SPAN) Group
- Beginner's course in phonetics, with some exercises
- Praat - Phonetic analysis software
- SID- Speech Internet Dictionary
- Extensive collection of phonetics resources on the Web (University of North Carolina)
- Abercrombie, D. (1967). Elements of General Phonetics. Edinburgh University Press: Edinburgh.
- Ashby, Michael & Maidment, John. (2005). Introducing Phonetic Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-80882-0 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-00496-9 (pbk).
- Catford, J. C. (1977). Fundamental problems in phonetics. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-32520-X.
- Clark, John; & Yallop, Colin. (1995). An introduction to phonetics and phonology (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19452-5.
- Gussenhoven, C & Broeders, A. (1997). English pronunciation for student teachers. Wolters-Noordhoff BV Groningen, the Netherlands. ISBN 90 01 16703 9
- Hardcastle, William J.; & Laver, John (Eds.). (1997). The handbook of phonetic sciences. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 0-631-18848-7.
- Ladefoged, Peter. (1982). A course in phonetics (2nd ed.). London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
- Ladefoged, Peter. (2003). Phonetic data analysis: An introduction to fieldwork and instrumental techniques. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-23269-9 (hbk); ISBN 0-631-23270-2 (pbk).
- Ladefoged, Peter; & Maddieson, Ian. (1996). The sounds of the world's languages. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 0-631-19814-8 (hbk); ISBN 0-631-19815-6 (pbk).
- Maddieson, Ian. (1984). Patterns of sounds. Cambridge studies in speech science and communication. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Laver, J. (1994).Principles of Phonetics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Pike, Kenneth L. (1943). Phonetics: A critical analysis of phonetic theory and a technic for the practical description of sounds. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
- Pisoni, David B.; & Remez, Robert E. (Eds.). (2004). The handbook of speech perception. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-22927-2.
- Rogers, Henry. (2000). The Sounds of Language: An Introduction to Phonetics. Harlow, Essex: Pearson. ISBN 0-582-38182-7.
- Stevens, Kenneth N. (1998). Acoustic phonetics. Current studies in linguistics (No. 30). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-19404-X.
phonetician in Aragonese: Fonetica
phonetician in Asturian: Fonética
phonetician in Bengali: ধ্বনিবিজ্ঞান
phonetician in Belarusian: Фанетыка
phonetician in Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa): Фанэтыка
phonetician in Bosnian: Fonetika
phonetician in Breton: Fonetik
phonetician in Bulgarian: Фонетика
phonetician in Catalan: Fonètica
phonetician in Chuvash: Фонетика
phonetician in Czech: Fonetika
phonetician in Welsh: Seineg
phonetician in Danish: Fonetik
phonetician in German: Phonetik
phonetician in Estonian: Foneetika
phonetician in Modern Greek (1453-): Φωνητική
phonetician in Spanish: Fonética
phonetician in Esperanto: Fonetiko
phonetician in Basque: Fonetika
phonetician in Persian: آواشناسی
phonetician in French: Phonétique
phonetician in Manx: Fockreeaght
phonetician in Galician: Fonética
phonetician in Korean: 음성학
phonetician in Croatian: Fonetika
phonetician in Ido: Fonetiko
phonetician in Indonesian: Fonetik
phonetician in Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association): Phonetica
phonetician in Icelandic: Hljóðfræði
phonetician in Italian: Fonetica
phonetician in Hebrew: פונטיקה
phonetician in Swahili (macrolanguage): Fonetiki
phonetician in Latvian: Fonētika
phonetician in Luxembourgish: Phonetik
phonetician in Lojban: voksnaske
phonetician in Hungarian: Fonetika
phonetician in Dutch: Fonetiek
phonetician in Japanese: 音声学
phonetician in Norwegian: Fonetikk
phonetician in Norwegian Nynorsk: Fonetikk
phonetician in Novial: Fonetike
phonetician in Polish: Fonetyka
phonetician in Portuguese: Fonética
phonetician in Romanian: Fonetică
phonetician in Russian: Фонетика
phonetician in Albanian: Fonetika
phonetician in Simple English: Phonetics
phonetician in Slovak: Fonetika
phonetician in Slovenian: Fonetika
phonetician in Serbian: Фонетика
phonetician in Serbo-Croatian: Fonetika
phonetician in Finnish: Fonetiikka
phonetician in Swedish: Fonetik
phonetician in Tamil: ஒலிப்பியல்
phonetician in Thai: สัทศาสตร์
phonetician in Turkish: Sesbilim
phonetician in Ukrainian: Фонетика
phonetician in Yiddish: פאנעטיק
phonetician in Chinese: 语音学
dialectician, etymologer, etymologist, glossarist, glossographer, grammarian, grammaticaster, grammatist, lexicographer, lexicologist, linguist, linguistic scholar, linguistic scientist, linguistician, orthoepist, paleographer, philologaster, philologer, philologian, philologist, phonemicist, phoneticist, phonologist, semanticist, semasiologist